I will give your hide to the tanner, I will dole out your meat by the bushel to the orphans of the city, I will give your two horns as oil vessels before the goddess Inanna in the Eanna temple! (Akka to Enkidu): "Slave, is that man your king?" In one of the most amusing and lighthearted passages in Babylonian literature, the humanization proceeds as Enkidu is bathed, anointed, clothed, and then introduced to human fare-bread and beer. 240 He did not fall in the place of manly battle, the netherworld seized him. 77 part of the game. [In the fragmentary lines that follow, there is mention of weapons and ornaments of gold, silver, ivory, and iron.] 245. [Had I killed the likes of] you, would I have filled my belly? You can pay no silver, no gold can you [... 1, What Enlil commanded is not like the [... ] of the gods, What he commanded, he will not retract. Worldview, Theology, & Culture First Baptist Church, McLoud Recap: 1. 67 No closer than sixty times sixty paces,2 Huwawa sat in his cedar den. Humbaba is guardian of the forest [of cedars], Finish him off for the kill, put him out of existence, Before Enlil the foremost one hears of this! (G.) Did you see the woman who never gave birth? As battle is joined, Huwawa issues a threat to Gilgamesh and Enkidu but is unabk to cany it out. How long till there is a shining chair for me to sit on? Box 658, Clayton, DE 19938. [Enkidu blocks the king's way to the ceremony. 47 'I'lie [... ] cowrie shells.' Now then, 0 door, it was I who made you, it was I who set YOU Up. (G.) Did you see him who died by fire? Take an axe 111 your hand [and cut] poles of forty or fifty yards." They are dressed like birds in feather garments, Yea, they shall see no daylight, for they abide in darkness. zoc 1 ICilgamesh captures Huwawa.] "He grcw up," says the author, "and his understanding broadened." This means that by his birthright Gilgamesh can take brides first on their wedding nights, then leave them to their wedded husbands. 'I'he harlot said to him, to Enkidu: You are handsome, Enkidu, you are become like a god, Why roam the steppe with wild beasts? When would you go? He lay [... 1, The physician took [... ] in hand, Before heaven he held [... ] the holy first-fruit offerings. 170 The gods should come to the incense offering, But Enlil should not come to the incense offering, For he, irrationally, brought on the flood, And marked my people for destruction!" 1. [Gilgamesh tells how he reacted in his dream.] Another Gilgamesh story concerned with death called "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Nethe~orld. (G.) How does he fare? As it turned out, Enkidu did all these things and the netherworld held him fast. To understand Christian stewardship we must accept that God is the creator of everything, owner of everything, and the perfect, Bible Verses About Love: The Bible is full of great verses and passages about the topic of love. ", Haslingden High School RE HOMEWORK BOOKLET Year 8 Block A. Also when he rejects the adult goal of marriage and children urged by the alewife he does so in terms of his attachment to Enkidu [see Tablet X, lines (Editor)]: "Why, my (good) alewife do you talk thus? The interpretation of dreams by mothers is often an aspect of their reassuring a troubled child. 319 Then down from the sky the Sun-god of Heaven spoke to them, "Proceed! Then the glow was dimmed, the fire was extinguished, The [burning coals] that were falling turned to ashes. Afterwards, when Enkidu returns to the hills where he lives, the an… After he turned away, Enkidu said to him, to Gilgamesh: As one unique did your mother bear you, The wild cow of the ramparts, Ninsun, Exalted you above the most valorous of men! Then for the young lord, for the lord Gilgamesh, They gnashed their teeth, They tore out their hair. On the third day they arrived at the appointed place. 22 You were born and grew up on the steppe, When a lion sprang at you, you knew what to do. For permission to reuse, in revised form, my translation of portions of Tablet XI, published in The Context of Scripture, ed. [... ] Utanapishtim my forefather [... ] Who took his place in the assembly of the gods [... ] Death and life [... ] The scorpion monster made ready to speak, spoke to him, Saying to Gilgamesh: 60 There is no [... 1, Gilgamesh, No one has ever [... ] the mountain. More than a thousand years before Homer or the Bible, Mesopotamian poets sang of the hero-king Gilgamesh, … There are wells to be finished, many wells of the land to be finished,' Many shallow wells of the land to be finished, Many deep wells with rope-hoists2 to be finished, (Do we answer:) "We do not want to submit to the house of Kish" or "We do not want to fight"? This handout, Contents PRE-VISIT ACTIVITIES Reading: The Diverse Cultures of Ancient Egypt / Mummy Portrait 1 Portrait Mask 2 Dionysos 3 Questions from the Reading Passage 4 VISIT ACTIVITIES Worksheet 1 5 Worksheet, 21 Discussion Guide Section #7: NOAH: A MAN OF FAITH 1. The following two-line example illustrates this: He anointed himself with oil, turned into a man, He put on clothing, became like a warrior. [Take(?)] 8. ): 0 my father, 0 my mother, drink this clear water! The Bull of Heaven, what will there be for you [if you slay it]? Aelian, a Roman author of the third century c.e., perhaps quoting indirectly a Babylonian writer, tells a story of the birth of Gilgamesh (translated below, p. 154). 'I'he young lady, who usually laughs with a happy heart, Radiant Inanna burst into tears. The elders of Uruk are pompous and long-winded, causing Gilgamesh to laugh (11, 275); Humbaba is mincing and bombastic, and Ishullanu, the gardener, uses a nonstandard form in Tablet VI, line 72 (this could be translated either as archaic and proverbial: "Hath my mother not baked?" lgilgamesh seeks help fiom the god Enki in the city of Eridu.] I suspect that this is a common image in other myths and epics in Sumerian and Akkadian. Your goats shall bear triplets, your ewes twins, Your pack-laden donkey shall overtake the mule, Your horses shall run proud before the wagon, 20 Your ox in the yoke shall have none to compare! Gilgamesh would leave no son to his father, Dav and night he would rampage. These things alone are the concern of man. You will render decisions, [you will decide legal cases], [Your verdict will be as weighty as that of the gods Ningishzida and Dumuzi]. The alewife-as had Shamash-sees the hopelessness of his quest and tries to dissuade him: Gilgamesh, whither are you roaming? He anointed himself with fine oil from a jar, They encircled him when they smelled it. (It is important to note that the prologue addresses a second participant. es~eciallv at the court of Uruk. Come, come, try not to sleep for six days and seven nights. It eats the green plants and strips the earth bare, 110 It crushes with its teeth the felled date palms of Uruk. Self-imposed Curses Psalm 34:13 - Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit. Mesopotamian poetly often refers to reeds to suggest something easily broken and impermanent. So Gilgamesh sets out on his quest. Anu made ready to speak, Saying to the princess Ishtar: Well now, did you not provoke the king, Gilgamesh, And so Gilgamesh spouted insults about you, Insults and curses against you? It may refer to some protective magical procedure. Scholars Press, Parenthetical references tn R.hvlnnian and references to other chapters in this book have been omitted. What follows is narii-epic, epic in a new key, epic in "the key of wisdom." TABLET 12: APPENDIX Tablet 12 is a literal translation of part of the Sumerian composition Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld, and it is certainly a later but not an altogether happy addition, destroying the narrative symmetry of the earlier eleven-tablet work. THEME: We should take every opportunity to tell others about Jesus. Today I wish my ball had stayed in the carpenter's shop. Anu made ready to speak, Saying to the princess Ishtar: If you insist on the Bull of Heaven from me, Let the widow of Uruk gather seven years of chaff, [Let the farmer of Uruk] raise [seven years of hay]. When the wild beasts draw near the water hole, Let her strip off her clothing, laying bare her charms. A three-strand rope does not [... 1, Two cubs are [stronger] than a mighty lion. I4fty double leagues they went in a single day, 115 A journey of a month and a half in three days. [Cilgarnesh cuts down the cedar.] Shamhat, the harlot, is eloquent and persuasive (I, ), whereas Ishtar, the goddess, apparently speaks like a person of little education, perhaps a streetwalker (VI, , 151). Matthias has been chosen to replace Judas. 50 'I'he Lady of Birth drew his body's image, 'I'hc God of Wisdom brought his stature to perfe~tion.~ I... ] stately in feature, I... ] in body, lofty [... ] 1 lis foot was a triple cubit, his leg six times twelve, l lis stride was six times twelve cubits, I lis thumb was [... ] cubits. 5 This four-thousand-year-old tale of love, death, and adventure is the world's oldest epic masterpiece. There is no evidence in the Gilgamesh Epic of a "temple" prostitute over against a "commercial" prostitute. ICilgamesh captures Huwawa.] Sleep, which usually steals over people, fell upon him. How you pule! His unkempt looks and hide clothing frighten the alewife and she hastens to lock her door, thinking him a bandit. What seems to me likely is that the proverbial language of the harimtu (and of the sabitu [tavern keeper (Editor)]) is an important element of inversion: from the mouths of these maruinal , and I presume, uneducated, perhaps uncouth, women issue forth words of learning. Also pertinent is the Mesopotamian view that among the mes, which constitute the norms of civilized life, are included sexual intercourse and prostit~tion.~ Relevant too is the fact that the prostitute in Mesopotamia, like the prostitute in ancient Israel, was a prime representative of urban life.4 Of special value in appreciating the mediating role of the harimtu are S. Ortner's comments, for she provides a frame of reference in understanding this function. [According to a Hittite version (see p. 163) Enkidu sees the gods Anu, Enlil, Ilk, and Shamash in council. 119 brings her aboard the boat and has her kneel beside her husband [XI, But she speaks and acts on behalf of Gilgamesh. where he became the subiect, I of heroic tales. For while Gilgamesh has only heard of Huwawa, Enkidu has actually seen hi111 in the days he was roaming the desert, and he has acquired a healtlly respect for him: Huwawa, his roar is a floodstorm, his mouth very fire, his breath death. S I ~ then turned to Gilgamesh, who gallantly took up arms and drove thc intruders away, felled the tree, gave her its wood for a table and a bed, and made for himself a puck and stick-for a game which seems to have resembled modern hockey-out of its roots. Ishullanu said to you, 70 "Me? Up to this point, it will have been noted, Gilgamesh has lived by thv heroic values of his times. When he saw him, the hunter stood stock-still with terror, As for Enkidu, he went home with his beasts. In view of this, one aspect of Tablet XI1 needs to be underlined. The top of the post was cased or enclosed so the door post would not slip off its pivot point. Go up on the wall of Uruk, walk around, examine the terrace, look closely at the brickwork: Is not the base of its brickwork of baked brick? Then came "The Warriors," all sons of one mother-they were seven in number. The concluding words of his curse parody traditional Mesopotamian inscriptions affixed to monuments, which culled the wrath of the gods upon anyone who damaged, removed, or usurped [he monument.] Is there one so high that he can be imprudent? Cover design by Karen Polinger Foster. When Humbaba heard [... ] (Realizing he is doomed, Humbaba curses them, concluding with an elaborate wordplay.] Write in the third person. What was set at the cutting of your umbilical cord has come for you, so I have decreed. Hey there, lusty one, anointed with glistening oil, Noble one, delight of the gods, Spirited bull rampant in battle, Lord, prince Gilgamesh, honored in Uruk. 43 Hear ye, blacksmith, lapidary, metalworker, goldsmith, jeweler! Then both of them, Gilgamesh and Ur-Shanabi, [went] up into the boat. (E.) His father and mother hold his head, while his wife weeps. Her name or epithet, Rimat-Ninsun "Wild-Cow Ninsun," incorporates the ubiquitous non-erotic metaphor used to describe tender, loving mother goddesses in Mesopotamia and el~ewhere.~ The all-knowing mother is expert, as are other Mesopotamian women, human and divine, in interpreting dreams5 Addressed tenderly by Gilgamesh when he speaks to her, she is the only female with whom there is a loving malelfemale relationship in the Gilgamesh Epic6 She laments his restless heart and pleads with Shamash to assist him. Let Enkidu] kneel I want to see Huwawa!" Adad is first and Humbaba is second. The narrative is sometimes rapid, sometimes slow. One day passes, then a second, and on the third Enkidu and the animals appear and go down to drink. Finally, attention should be given to Ninsun's suggesting to Shamash that Aya remind him of Gilgamesh lest he forget him [III, 56].5 All of the above-mentioned women (both divine and human) are assisting, nurturing, caring persons. The Sumerian narrative poems of the late third millennium B.C.E. Sharing a meal, they decide to confront the monstrous Huwawa, s5 The hero Enkidu was in the steppe, [and] the wild beasts raised whom Enkidu had seen during his time in the steppe. Holding me fast, he took me down to the house of shadows, the dwelling of hell, To the house whence none who enters comes forth, On the road from which there is no way back, To the house whose dwellers are deprived of light, Where dust is their fare and their food is clay. (G.) How does she fare? That it belongs with the frame is suggested by the stress which the introduction to the epic places upon it, for in a passage omitted in our retelling of the story the introduction lists as one of Gilgamesh's achievements that he brought back information from before the flood. The name Gilgamesh itself is composed 5. ), anger came over him, "Who has come and cut down the cedars [which] have grown up for me [among] the mountains?" 0 [Shamash], you opened [... ] for the beasts of the steppe, You came out for the land to [... 1, The mountains [glow], the heavens [brighten], 60 The beasts of the steppe [behold] your fierce radiance. Father Sin did not support him in that matter, he went to Eridu. A list of ancient Mesopotamian kings, compiled in the early second millennium B.c.E., names Gilgamesh in the following passage, where he, like other kings of his era, is given a fabulously long reign: "The god Lugalbanda, a shepherd, reigned for 1200 years. In one lay, Gilgamesh, accompanied by Enkidu and other retainers, in order to achieve the immortality that comes with heroic deeds, sets out to confront the monster Khuwawa in the Cedar I From Civilizations of The Ancient Near East, Volume IV, pp Edited by Jack M. Sasson. ; and Abusch, op. The harimtu of the curse she views as a "commercial" harlot. The largess is now his: he is repaying the good turn Agga originally did him and is no more in his debt. Did you not touch me? In ruthlessly asserting themselves and seeking ever new ways to prove their prowess they have grievously offended the gods, paying no heed to them whatever. [The goddess Inanna speaks to Gilgamesh.] I luwawa clutched Gilgamesh's hand, and threw himself down before him. Ishi;~r and her women set up a wail over the shank of the bull, while Gilgilmesh calls together the craftsmen so that they can admire the size of the bull's horns before he presents them as a votive offering to Ilia father, the god Lugalbanda. From that day forth, we swore by the life of heaven and the life of earth, 55 From that day forth, we swore that no one of the human race would live -forever. Her speech is noteworthy for its jarring colloquialisms. 1 'I'he young fisherman, son of the fisherman of the goddess Inanna, Struck him with his double axe, I Ie flattened(?) He has heard about all ancestor of his, Utanapishtim, who gained eternal life and now lives fa1 away at the ends of the world. [Gilgamesh spurns Ishtar's proposal, heaping scorn upon her. He gave me water to drink and eased my fear, He set my feet on the ground again. You struck me, you broke your oath! Upon hearing this speech, 'I'he young men acclaimed him: Go, Gilgamesh, may [... ] May your god go [by your side], May he disclose to you [your heart's desire]. 175 [Gilgamesh fulfills his promises to his mother and sister.] God wants us to. 55ff. Likewise in Humbaba's curse of Gilgamesh and Enkidu (V, 113), there seem to be elaborate wordplays that mean at the same time "May they not cross water safely to the opposite bank" and "May they not find a friend to rely on," where "cross" sounds like "friend" and "bank" has an ominous echo of the word for "grave," although this example remains obscure. In the two translations of The Epic of GIlgamesh as presented by N.K. Some of these figures may have been mathematical jokes intended for people with a Mesopotamian mathematical education, while others may simply be exaggerations in folkloric or epic style. He hefted its fifty-mina weight as if it were thirty shekels. I will take my seat with the shades. 9. ), [... 1, rubies(? Gilgamesh said to him, to the faraway Utanapishtim: "What can I do, Utanapishtim, where will I go? The town officials wish him well. English. I le who saw the wellspring, the foundations of the land, Who knew [... 1, was wise in all things, (iilgamesh, who saw the wellspring, the foundations of the land, Who knew [... 1, was wise in all things, I He... ] throughout, 5 Il'r~ll understanding of it all he gained, I Ic saw what was secret and revealed what was hidden, I lc brought back tidings from before the flood, From a distant journey came home, weary, at peace, Ihgraved all his hardships on a monument of stone, I le built the walls of ramparted Uruk, 'I'he lustrous treasury of hallowed Eanna! )"~ at the appearance of the new moon, Box and wrestle before them (the mortuary statues), In the month of Ab, the festival of shades, For him, no longer there, there would be no light. Why do you want to do this? [Remainder missing.] and in a three-way wordplay, "commanded" or "something evoked by" (I, 96) may also suggest "male" and "sequestered man as if in a harem." [Preamble.] (G.) How does he fare? 2. Ibid., pp There is also more stress put on her wisdom in the Late Version. A first sortie by the warrior Birhurturra proved unsuccessful. The harimtu' is thus a prime example of role and status inversion: the lowly, marginal harimtu is elevated to the central kin role of "mother." [When a woman] is given in marriage to a young man, before men of Uruk. He appeals to the deity, pointing out that he is merely fblfilling a fate preordained when the Mother-goddess(?) 8. And $3 He wandered around all the lands. 45 'I'he wife of the scorpion monster answered him: [The following episode, found in an old version, may be placed here. Who can go into his forest? 2. Gilgamesh made ready to speak, Saying to Enkidu: There dwells in the forest the fierce monster Humbaba, [You and I shall] kill [him] [And] wipe out [something evil from the land]. Line 27 (in the Kovacs translation tradition. Carob (line 125) was a common seedpod eaten or made into juice; hence, the most ordinary-looking fruit turned out to be a precious stone in this garden. They stepped back and prostrated themselves before Shamash, Then the two comrades sat down beside each other. This earlier version of the Epic of Gilgamesh has come to be known as the Oltl Babylonian Version. /,I Towards sunset they dug a well, Filled [their waterskin with waterl. Ihkidu jumped out and seized the bull by its horns, 125 'I'he bull spewed its foam in his face, Swished dung at him with the tuft of its tail. The book also includes "The Sumerian Gilgamesh Poems", translated by Douglas Frayne, and "The Hittite Gilgamesh", translated by Gary Beckman. And in the loss Gilgamesh for the first time can take himself less seriously, even smile ruefully at himself; he has at last become mature. Thrice thirty-six hundred measures basket-bearers brought aboard for oil, Not counting the thirty-six hundred measures of oil that the offering consumed, And the twice thirty-six hundred measures of oil that the boatbuilders made off with. When he traversed the seventh mountain range, he came upon the cedar he desired. Moved by pity, Utanapishtim's wife asks her husband to give Gilgamesh a parting gift for his journey home, and Utanapishtim reveals a secret. The king thcn addresses the reader: Whosoever you may be, whether governor or prince or anyone elsc, Whom the gods shall call to rule over a kingdom, I have made for you a chest and inscribed for you a nad, And in the city of Cuthah, in the temple Emeslam, In the chamber of the god Nergal, deposited it for you. When he had gone ten double hours, 110 I'l'l~e time for the sun's entry] was drawing near. If you are reading this, then more than likely you are embarking on a week-long adventure serving our Lord and Savior along the U.S. / México border. Their arrival creates a stir. Utanapishtim said to him, to Gilgamesh: Dragonflies drift downstream on a river, Their faces staring at the sun, Then, suddenly, there is nothing. Mighty Gilgamesh, may you be honored! (;ilgamesh sat there, chin on his knee. The question about theme probes further. I ;I Iird I... ] [Gilgamesh arrives at the seashore, where he greets the personified Sea with a blessing upon him and his retainers. The question about sources asks what the author had to work with or-if the Old Babylonian fragments do not yet represent an epic, merely a cycle of taleswithin what frame of reference, within what world of traditional Gilgamesh lore, the telling of these tales moved. 557f., where he discusses Rahab's social position as a prostitute. The Epic of Gilgamesh, ed. Gilgamesh and Enkidu presented it to the gods Enlil and Ninlil. It involves me. Enkidu ignored the words of his master. Gilgamesh… Its source is obviously the tradition about the flood represented both by the Sumerian flood story and the elaborate account in the Atrahasis Myth.7 In neither of these settings, of course, does the flood have any relation to the traditional Gilgamesh materials. and I abandoned u the boat on the shore. 250 Adad is first and Humbaba is second. them to the port of Babylon so I can see for myself and be struck dumb with awe. At dawn, where he had made the mark, he again rode piggyback. RIVKAH HARRIS Images of Women in the Gilgamesh Epicl Several years ago W. L. Moran urged Assyriologists to adopt "the more comprehensive critical strategies of the contemporary literary criticism" t From Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia: The Gilgamesh Epic and Other Ancient Literature, by Rivkah Harris. In Uruk a person dies, and the heart grieves, 5 A person is no more, and the heart breaks. He lifted his eyes, he saw a man. This may refer to a band of cloth that held up Gilgamesh's long hair. 85 Ninsun the wild cow made a second plea to Shamash: 0 Shamash, will not Gilgamesh [... ] the gods for you? Today has been set aside to honor fathers. May the young men of ramparted Uruk weep for you, Who watched us slay the Bull of Heaven in combat. Paul, Jesus the Magnificent Scripture: Luke 8:40-56 and Luke 18:35-43 Objective: God is all Powerful! Gilgamesh's first quest for immortality in fame defied the gods arid brought their retribution on him; this quest for actual immortalitv ia, -- even more deeply defiant; it defies human nature itself, the very ~or~dition of being human, finite, mortal. ... and John Maier, published in 1984. 0 goddess Inanna, let me proclaim your heroism, How sweet it is to praise you! I tried to carry it but it was too strong for me, I tried to move it but I could not budge it. The problem, of course, is whether the contractions and expansions of women's speeches really incorporate changing attitudes or are simply literary structural changes. 51 My friend whom I so loved, who went with me through every hardship, Enkidu, whom I so loved, who went with me through everv hardshi~. The warrior, youthful Utu, gave these seven to lord Gilgamesh. 105 The valiant Shamash alone can cross this sea, Save for the sun, who could cross this sea? Belet-seri, scribe of the netherworld,'was knegling before her, She was holding [a tablet] and reading to her, [She lifted] her head, she looked at me: "Who brought this man?" Dying fertility god Dumuzi, etc seven gates of Uruk. ] is modeled on a garment, was.. Both were important in the alley, 145 I will reveal to you, you gave him first. Wants to seek refuge in one of them, `` he was speaking, Enkidu dissuades Gilgamesh from tree... 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